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The Historical Museum Of Artillery


It was Peter the Great who ordered to collect and to keep Russian ancient gun, trophies and also different military equipment. In the year of 1703 he examined the cannons in Moscow arsenal and he ordered to save the bronze mortar that had been casted in 1605. This date should be considered as the beginning of Russian artillery equipment collection.

There were another Peter the Great's decrees. In 1718, for example, His edict prohibited to recast Russian ancient cannons, they should have been kept in the arsenals. In 1719 eight cannons of LifeGuards of Preobrajenski's and Semenovski's regiments were given to Saint-Petersburg arsenal.

In 1724 Peter I ordered to Astrakhan governor that all ancient-casted cannons should have been sent to Moscow from Astrakhan, Derbent and in other Russian cities. Until the middle of 18 c. the ancient military tools as well as the "inventive" attractive in some technic respects artillery specimens were brought to Moscow and Saint-Petersburg.

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Among the precious curiosities there are the very first cannons of Russian artillery (14-15 c.), Ustujenski's iron arquebuses, bronze gun which were casted by the craftsman Yakov. Also there are the unique specimens which were made by the craftsman Andrew Chehov and his students, the gun of Peter I's "amusing" troops and Russian rifled gun of 16-17 c. that outstripped its epoch. Russian arquebuses with breech blocks that are presented at the exhibition anticipated the design of famous Krupp's blocks and the construction of modern artillery gun for a couple of centuries.

The date of June, 28, 1756 was accepted as the museum date of birth. This date is connected with empress Elisabeth's decree about collecting fresh-invented and other memorable things. In the same Russian artillery general P.I. Shuvalov ordered to second lieutenant Ivan Miller to keep ancient gun in Saint-Petersburg Liteyniy (Casting) House. Miller examined the House and he didn't find suitable room to place the "memorable things". The suitable room was found at New Cannon Yard not far from Liteyniy bridge and it was the place where the gun from Moscow's and Saint-Petersburg's arsenals was located. In 1775 the collection was transported from New Cannon Yard to Old Cannon Yard territory.

The collection was increasing fast. About six thousand exhibits were collected to the end of 18 c.

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Kalashnikov's arms, exhibition.

The exhibition is dedicated to eightieth anniversary of outstanding Russian constractor M.T. Kalashnikov. Automatic arms of Kalashnikov's type was admitted throughout the world. More than 100 countries have it as arming and product it for selling.

The exhibition presents the first machine-gun made by Kalashnikov in 1942, the first specimen of 1947, which started AK type, all established arm specimen of M.T. Kalashnikov, which have been accepted for arming since 1949, more than 30 models of this type and its modification that are producing adroad, and also the arms that was given to the museum by Kalashnikov himself.

Besides, the exhibition is going to present competive works including "Abakan" that are the constructors Korobov's and Nikonov's machine-guns.

The leader of the exhibition author team is general museum keeper A.Kulinskiy.

The exhibition is available since October, 18, 1999 to March, 1, 2000.

N.E. Brandenburg, the brief historic outline.

Nicolai Branderburg was born in August, 8, 1839. He finished the gymnasium 5 and then Konstantin's military school. In 1870 on graduating the faculty of East, Saint-Petersburg State University, he was rewarded with silver medal.

In May, 20, 1872 he was charged to prepare the artillery department of Politechnical exhibition in Moscow. In October, 13, 1872 he was appointed as a director of Artillery Museum. During 30 years Branderburg turned the museum into scientific institution. As a result of his activity the museum had the first place among Europeen museums of this type.

Branderburg's rewards

  • 1866 the order of Saint Stanislav (3d degree)
  • 1872 the order of Saint Vladimir (4th degree)
  • 1874 the order of Red Eagle (3d degree,Prussia)
  • 1874 Commander Cross of France Iosif order (Austria)
  • 1874 the order of Saint Stanislav (2d degree)
  • 1877 the order of Saint Anna (2d degree with swords)
  • 1878 the order of Saint Vladimir (2d degree with swords)
  • 1879 personal monarch favour
  • 1886 promoted to the general-major
  • 1889 the order of Saint Stanislav (1st degree)
  • 1892 King Takov's order (2d degree, Serbia)
  • 1893 the order of Daniil I (2d degree,Chernogoria)
  • 1893 the order of Rising Star (1st degree, Buhara)
  • 1894 the order of Saint Anna (1st degree)
  • 1896 promoted to general-lieutenant
  • 1901 the order of Saint Vladimir (1st degree)


  • Light-Bronze Medal in honour of the war 1877-1878
  • Silver Medal in honour emperor Alexander's III reign
  • Rumanian Iron Cross in honour of the troops march across the Dunai-river(1877)
  • The Mark of Distinction for impacable military service "for 40 years"